1996-97 Sustainable Agriculture Graduate Award

Jo Ann Baumgartner, "Bird and Arthropod Predation of Codling Moth in
Sustainable Apple Orchards," $2,000. Codling moth is a worldwide pest of
apples. Broad spectrum organophosphate pesticides are routinely applied to
control this moth in conventional orchards; there are few sustainable
options that reduce the overwintering populations of codling moths. Birds
and some insect species are known to attack the dormant stage of the
coddling moth. Many orchardists do not realize the volume of insects many
birds are capable of consuming, or that the codling moth is eaten by 36
different bird species. A preliminary survey by this researcher showed
approximately 40 percent of overwintering codling moths appear to have been
attacked by birds . This research will continue the work with replicated,
statistically valid studies of the interactions among the dormant codling
moth, California bird species and insect predators.